Words have been divided into different groups or categories according to their function in the sentence. These groups or categories are called “Parts of Speech”. In English, there are eight common parts of speech:
Noun is the name of person, place, thing or an idea.
Person: Mr. Ali likes to eat a burger.
Place: Peshawar is an old city.
Thing: There are lots of sophisticated computers.
Idea: Honesty is a great value to possess.
Pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun to avoid unnecessary repetition.
There are many kinds of pronoun.
The common kind is personal or subject pronouns.
e.g.: He, She, It, They, We, You, I, etc.
It is a word that shows an action or state of being.
Action: He studies for his exam.
State of being: He was at the market yesterday.
A word that modifies/gives extra information about verb, adjective or another adverb is called Adverb. For example:
The little girl walked happily through the park.
He is so honest a boy.
She reads the lesson pretty fast.
It is a word that modifies/describes/gives extra information about a noun or a pronoun. For example:
Derek is an intelligent student.
The stormy day made us even sadder.
A word or a phrase that shows the relationship between the noun and the other words of the sentence is called Preposition. For example:
The bottle was on the table.
The paper was under the table.
These are some common prepositions:
On, up, at, above, between, toward, with, to, in, behind, under, from, upon, into, etc.
It is a word that joins words, phrases or sentences.
Saod and Khan loved to cook.
I am happy because I just received my admission letter.
It has been raining since the morning.
Some common conjunctions are:
For, and, nor, but, or, yet etc.
It is a word that expresses strong feelings. It is followed by an exclamatory mark (!). For example:
Wow! You knocked that ball out of the playground.
Oh! You really need to take care of your parents.
Huh! What did you do?
Ah! Now I understand the point.
The 9th part of speech
According to modern grammarians, there is one more part of speech that is called ‘Article’.
A word that is used to particularize or generalize a noun is called article.
There are three articles in English and are divided into two types.
1. Definite articles 2. Indefinite articles
The a & an
Definite article refers to specific things. e.g: The Holy Quran, The Bible
Indefinite article refers to general things. e.g: an artist, a result etc.
Modern grammarians tell a third article too. It is Ø, called zero article. It means no article. Therefore, when there is no article used, we say that zero article is used.
Parts of speech are very crucial to understand because without the knowledge of these, no one can write a correct sentence.
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